doxycycline


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doxycycline

 [dok″sĕ-si´klēn]
a broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic, used as the hyclate and calcium salts against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms; administered orally or intravenously.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

doxycycline

Adoxa, Oracea, Vibramycin

doxycycline calcium

Vibramycin Calcium

doxycycline hyclate

Alodox, Apo-Doxy (CA), Doryx, Doxy 100, Doxytab, Novo-Doxylin (CA), Oraxyl, Periostat, Vibramycin-D (UK), Vibramycin Hyclate

doxycycline monohydrate

Monodox

🤪😰🤫 Pharmacologic class: Tetracycline

🤪😰🤫 Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

🤪😰🤫 Pregnancy risk category D

Action

🤪😰🤫 Unclear. Thought to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis at 30S and 50S ribosomal subunit and to alter cytoplasmic membrane of susceptible organisms.

Availability

🤪😰🤫 Capsules: 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg

🤪😰🤫 Capsules (coated pellets): 40 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg

🤪😰🤫 Powder for injection: 100 mg, 200 mg

🤪😰🤫 Powder for oral suspension: 25 mg/5 ml

🤪😰🤫 Syrup: 50 mg

🤪😰🤫 Tablets: 20 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg

Indications and dosages

🤪😰🤫 Rosacea

🤪😰🤫 Adults: 40 mg P.O. daily in the morning

🤪😰🤫 Infections caused by various organisms, including Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Rickettsia organisms, and Borrelia burgdorfer

🤪😰🤫 Adults and children weighing more than 45 kg (99 lb): 100 mg P.O. q 12 hours on first day, followed by 100 to 200 mg P.O. once daily; or 50 to 100 mg P.O. q 12 hours; or 200 mg I.V. once daily; or 100 mg I.V. q 12 hours on first day, followed by 100 to 200 mg I.V. once daily; or 50 to 100 mg I.V. q 12 hours

🤪😰🤫 Children weighing 45 kg (99 lb) or less: 2.2 mg/kg P.O. q 12 hours on first day, followed by 2.2 to 4.4 mg/kg/day P.O. once daily; or 1.1 to 2.2 mg/kg P.O. q 12 hours; or 4.4 mg/kg I.V. once daily; or 2.2 mg/kg I.V. q 12 hours on first day, followed by 2.2 to 4.4 mg/kg I.V. once daily; or 1.1 to 2.2 mg/kg I.V. q 12 hours

🤪😰🤫 Gonorrhea in penicillin-allergic patients

🤪😰🤫 Adults and children weighing more than 45 kg (99 lb): 100 mg P.O. q 12 hours for 7 days; or 300 mg P.O. initially, followed by another 300 mg P.O. 1 hour later

🤪😰🤫 Lyme disease

🤪😰🤫 Adults and children weighing more than 45 kg (99 lb): 100 mg P.O. b.i.d. for 10 to 30 days

🤪😰🤫 Periodontitis

🤪😰🤫 Adults and children weighing more than 45 kg (99 lb): 20 mg P.O. b.i.d. for up to 9 months

🤪😰🤫 Anthrax

🤪😰🤫 Adults and children weighing more than 45 kg (99 lb): 100 mg P.O. b.i.d. for 60 days; or 100 mg I.V. q 12 hours for 60 days, changing to oral route when appropriate

🤪😰🤫 Children weighing 45 kg (99 lb) or less: 2.2 mg/kg P.O. b.i.d. for 60 days; or 100 mg I.V. q 12 hours for 60 days, changing to oral route when appropriate

🤪😰🤫 Prevention of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in short-term travelers (less than 4 months)

🤪😰🤫 Adults: 100 mg/day P.O. starting 1 to 2 days before travel begins and continuing during and for 4 weeks after travel

🤪😰🤫 Children: 2 mg/kg/day P.O., up to adult dosage of 100 mg/day, starting 1 to 2 days before travel begins and continuing during and for 4 weeks after travel

Off-label uses

🤪😰🤫 • Traveler's diarrhea

🤪😰🤫 • Pleural effusion

Contraindications

🤪😰🤫 • Hypersensitivity to drug, other tetracyclines, or bisulfites (with some drug products)

Precautions

🤪😰🤫 Use cautiously in:

🤪😰🤫 • renal disease, hepatic impairment, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, cachexia

🤪😰🤫 • pregnant or breastfeeding patients

🤪😰🤫 • children younger than age 8.

Administration

🤪😰🤫 • Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity testing, as ordered, before first dose.

🤪😰🤫 Don't give in conjunction with methoxyflurane anesthetic. Severe or fatal kidney damage may result.

🤪😰🤫 • Reconstitute powder for injection with dextrose 5% in water, normal saline solution, lactated Ringer's solution, or dextrose 5% in lactated Ringer's solution.

🤪😰🤫 • Don't infuse solutions with concentrations above 1 mg/ml.

🤪😰🤫 • Infuse 100-mg dose over at least 1 hour.

🤪😰🤫 • Complete infusion within 12 hours of dilution, unless diluted with lactated Ringer's solution or dextrose 5% in lactated Ringer's solution; in this case, complete infusion within 6 hours.

🤪😰🤫 Don't give during last half of pregnancy or to children under age 8 unless other drugs are likely to be ineffective or are contraindicated. Drug may retard bone growth and cause tooth discoloration and malformation.

🤪😰🤫 • Be aware that capsules with coated pellets contain immediate- and delayed-release pellets.

Adverse reactions

🤪😰🤫 CNS: paresthesia, pseudotumor cerebri

🤪😰🤫 CV: phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, pericarditis

🤪😰🤫 EENT: vestibular reactions, hoarseness, pharyngitis

🤪😰🤫 GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, esophagitis, epigastric distress, enterocolitis, anogenital lesions or inflammation, glossitis, oral candidiasis, black hairy tongue, pancreatitis

🤪😰🤫 GU: dark yellow or brown urine, vaginal candidiasis

🤪😰🤫 Hematologic: hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia

🤪😰🤫 Hepatic: hepatotoxicity

🤪😰🤫 Musculoskeletal: bone growth retardation (in children younger than age 8)

🤪😰🤫 Skin: photosensitivity, maculopapular or erythematous rash, hyperpigmentation, urticaria

🤪😰🤫 Other: tooth enamel defects, increased appetite, phlebitis at I.V. site, superinfection, hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis

Interactions

🤪😰🤫 Drug-drug.Adsorbent antidiarrheals; antacids; calcium, iron, and magnesium preparations: decreased doxycycline absorption

🤪😰🤫 Barbiturates, carbamazepine, hormonal contraceptives containing estrogen, phenytoin, rifamycin: decreased doxycycline efficacy

🤪😰🤫 Cholestyramine, colestipol: decreased oral absorption of doxycycline

🤪😰🤫 Methoxyflurane: increased nephrotoxicity

🤪😰🤫 Penicillin: decreased penicillin activity

🤪😰🤫 Sucralfate: prevention of doxycycline absorption from GI tract

🤪😰🤫 Warfarin: enhanced warfarin effects

🤪😰🤫 Drug-diagnostic tests.Alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), eosinophils: increased levels

🤪😰🤫 Hemoglobin, neutrophils, platelets, white blood cells: decreased levels

🤪😰🤫 Urine catecholamines: false elevations

🤪😰🤫 Drug-food.Calcium-containing foods: decreased drug absorption

🤪😰🤫 Drug-behaviors.Alcohol use: decreased anti-infective effect of doxycycline

🤪😰🤫 Sun exposure: increased risk of photosensitivity

Patient monitoring

🤪😰🤫 • Evaluate I.V. site regularly. Apply cool compresses as needed.

🤪😰🤫 Monitor for hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis.

🤪😰🤫 • Monitor hepatic profile, CBC, BUN, and creatinine levels.

🤪😰🤫 • Assess for hypercoagulability in patients taking warfarin concurrently.

🤪😰🤫 • Monitor for digoxin toxicity in patients taking digoxin concurrently.

Patient teaching

🤪😰🤫 • Advise patient to take with 8 oz of water to ensure passage into stomach.

🤪😰🤫 • Tell patient to take on empty stomach at least 1 hour before meals or 2 hours afterwards.

🤪😰🤫 • Instruct patient to take at least 1 hour before bedtime to prevent esophagitis.

🤪😰🤫 Tell patient to immediately report painful swallowing, abdominal pain, easy bruising or bleeding, or signs of hypersensitivity (such as rash).

🤪😰🤫 • Advise female patient to tell prescriber if she is pregnant.

🤪😰🤫 • Instruct patient to avoid alcohol use and large amounts of calcium-containing foods (such as dairy products and some green leafy vegetables, such as spinach).

🤪😰🤫 • Stress importance of good oral hygiene.

🤪😰🤫 • As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, and behaviors mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

dox·y·cy·cline

(doks'ē-sī'klēn),
A broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

doxycycline

(dŏk′sĭ-sī′klēn′, -klĭn)
n.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic, C22H24N2O8, derived from tetracycline.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

doxycycline

Infectious disease A broad-spectrum antibiotic used for rickettsiosis–eg, Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, Q fever, rickettsialpox, tick fevers, RTIs from Mycoplasma pneumoniae, lymphogranuloma venereum, trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, etc, due to Chlamydia trachomatis, psittacosis–C psittaci, nongonococcal urethritis–Ureaplasma urealyticum, relapsing fever–Borrelia recurrentis, gram-negative microorganisms: Chancroid–Haemophilus ducreyi, plague–Yersinia pestis, tularemia–Francisella tularensis, cholera–Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter fetus, Brucella spp, Bartonella bacilliformis, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, malaria prophylaxis–Plasmodium falciparum in travelers to chloroquine and/or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistant areas Adverse effects GI tract disturbances, anorexia, N&V, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, anogenital Candida overgrowth, photophobia
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

dox·y·cy·cline

(doks'ē-sī'klēn)
A broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

doxycycline

A tetracycline antibiotic drug, deoxytetracycline, that is well absorbed when taken by mouth, even after food. Doxycycline is also used for the prophylaxis of MALARIA. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Periostat and Vibramycin.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

dox·y·cy·cline

(doks'ē-sī'klēn)
A broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive?
Based on the previous remarks, in the present study doxycycline is encapsulated in situ with gelatin through thermal treatments performed in inverse suspension, using formaldehyde and glucose as crosslinking agents.
The purpose of this study was to introduce alternative analytical procedures based on the chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline hyclate in laboratory-prepared synthetic and pharmaceutical mixtures.
On day 1, mean doxycycline content for the three compounded tablet formulations was 89%, 98%, and 116% (3/5, 5/5, and 1/5 samples within acceptable ranges); day 21 content range was 86% to 112% (1/5, 5/5, and 4/5 samples within acceptable ranges).
The antibiotic tetracycline/ doxycycline target the filarial endosymbiont, Wolbachia, opened new vistas for anti-filarial therapy.
While the fear response was 60 percent lower in those who had doxycycline in the first session, the researchers found that, importantly, other cognitive measures -- including sensory memory and attention -- were not affected.
Treatment efficacy for doxycycline, as determined by microbial cure, was calculated by using the number of treated men with a negative repeat test result by NAAT as the numerator and the number of treated men who underwent repeat testing as the denominator.
At the 31st day, the seven other groups received one of the following treatment regimens: doxycycline (oral, 40 mg/kg every 12 h for 14 days); ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin or levofloxacin (oral, 40 mg/kg/day of body weight for 14 days); and one of doxycycline-ciproflox-acin, doxycycline-ofloxacin or doxycycline-levofloxacin combinations at the same doses mentioned above (i.e.
Sun Pharma, the world's fifth-largest maker of generic medicines, is one of several companies selling doxycycline products in the United States.
(11) In two randomized, controlled trials, ciprofloxacin was the quinolone used, combined with doxycycline (12) or rifampin (13); the results were similar between the quinolone and the non-quinolone groups.
There were 67 cases in the doxycycline treated group and 40 cases in the azithromycin group.
In another head-to-head trial that compared low-dose modified-release doxycycline with placebo or 100 mg of doxycycline, the lower dose outperformed both placebo and full-strength antibiotics.
BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA -- Azithromycin has been shown to be noninferior to doxycycline in the treatment of chlamydia, in a randomized clinical trial conducted in a youth correctional facility.