diazepam


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Related to diazepam: lorazepam

diazepam

 [di-az´ĕ-pam]
a benzodiazepine used primarily as an antianxiety agent, and also used as a skeletal muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, antitremor agent, antipanic agent, as preoperative or preprocedural medication to relieve anxiety and tension, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms; administered orally, rectally, intravenously, or intramuscularly.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

diazepam

Apo-Diazepam (CA), Bio-Diazepam (CA), Dialar (UK), Diastat, Diazemuls (CA) (UK), Diazepam Intensol, Novo-Dipam (CA), PMS-Diazepam (CA), Stesolid (UK), Tensium, Valclair (UK), Valium, Vivol (CA)

😦🤤😂 Pharmacologic class: Benzodiazepine

😦🤤😂 Therapeutic class: Anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic, skeletal muscle relaxant (centrally acting)

😦🤤😂 Controlled substance schedule IV

😦🤤😂 Pregnancy risk category D

Action

😦🤤😂 Produces anxiolytic effect and CNS depression by stimulating gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Relaxes skeletal muscles of spine by inhibiting polysynaptic afferent pathways. Controls seizures by enhancing presynaptic inhibition.

Availability

😦🤤😂 Injection: 5 mg/ml

😦🤤😂 Oral solution: 1 mg/ml, 5 mg/5 ml

😦🤤😂 Tablets: 2 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg

Indications and dosages

😦🤤😂 Anxiety disorders

😦🤤😂 Adults: 2 to 10 mg P.O. two to four times daily, depending on symptom severity. Alternatively, for moderate anxiety, 2 to 5 mg I.V., repeated in 3 to 4 hours if needed. For severe anxiety, 5 to 10 mg I.V., repeated in 3 to 4 hours if needed.

😦🤤😂 Children age 6 months and older: 1 to 2.5 mg P.O. three to four times daily; may increase gradually as needed

😦🤤😂 Before cardioversion

😦🤤😂 Adults: 5 to 15 mg I.V. 5 to 10 minutes before cardioversion

😦🤤😂 Before endoscopy

😦🤤😂 Adults: Usually, 10 mg I.V. is sufficient; may be increased to 20 mg I.V. Alternatively, 5 to 10 mg I.M. 30 minutes before endoscopy.

😦🤤😂 Status epilepticus and severe recurrent convulsive seizures

😦🤤😂 Adults: 5 to 10 mg I.V. slowly, repeated as needed q 10 to 15 minutes, to a maximum of 30 mg; may repeat regimen if needed in 2 to 4 hours. May give I.M. if I.V. delivery is impossible.

😦🤤😂 Children ages 5 and older: 1 mg I.V. slowly q 2 to 5 minutes, to a maximum of 10 mg; repeat in 2 to 4 hours if needed. May give I.M. if I.V. delivery is impossible.

😦🤤😂 Children over 1 month to 5 years: 0.2 to 0.5 mg I.V. slowly q 2 to 5 minutes, to a maximum of 5 mg I.V. May give I.M. if I.V. delivery is impossible.

😦🤤😂 Muscle spasm associated with local pathology, cerebral palsy, athetosis, "stiff-man" syndrome, or tetanus

😦🤤😂 Adults: 2 to 10 mg P.O. three to four times daily. Or initially, 5 to 10 mg I.V. or I.M., repeated in 3 to 4 hours if needed. Tetanus may necessitate higher dosages.

😦🤤😂 Elderly or debilitated patients: Initially, 2 to 2.5 mg P.O. once or twice daily, increased gradually as needed and tolerated

😦🤤😂 Children ages 5 and older: 5 to 10 mg I.M. or I.V., repeated q 3 to 4 hours as needed to control tetanus spasm

😦🤤😂 Children over 1 month to 5 years: 1 to 2 mg I.M. or I.V. slowly, repeated q 3 to 4 hours as needed to control tetanus spasm

😦🤤😂 Acute alcohol withdrawal

😦🤤😂 Adults: Initially, 10 mg P.O. three to four times during first 24 hours, decreased to 5 mg P.O. three to four times daily p.r.n. Or initially, 10 mg I.M. or I.V.; then 5 to 10 mg I.M. or I.V. in 3 to 4 hours p.r.n.

Off-label uses

😦🤤😂 • Panic attacks

😦🤤😂 • Adjunct to general anesthesia

Contraindications

😦🤤😂 • Hypersensitivity to drug, other benzodiazepines, alcohol, or tartrazine

😦🤤😂 • Coma or CNS depression

😦🤤😂 • Narrow-angle glaucoma

Precautions

😦🤤😂 Use cautiously in:

😦🤤😂 • hepatic dysfunction, severe renal impairment

😦🤤😂 • elderly patients

😦🤤😂 • pregnant or breastfeeding patients (use not recommended)

😦🤤😂 • children.

Administration

😦🤤😂 • Give P.O. dose with or without food.

😦🤤😂 Administer I.V. infusion slowly into large vein, taking at least 1 minute for each 5 mg in adults or at least 3 minutes for each 0.25 mg/kg in children.

😦🤤😂 • Know that I.V. route is preferred over I.M. route because of slow or erratic I.M. absorption.

😦🤤😂 • Don't mix with other drugs or solutions in syringe or container.

😦🤤😂 • Enforce bed rest for at least 3 hours after I.V. injection.

😦🤤😂 • Give I.M. injection deeply and slowly into large muscle mass.

😦🤤😂 • If desired, mix oral solution with liquid or soft food.

Adverse reactions

😦🤤😂 CNS: dizziness, drowsiness, lethargy, depression, light-headedness, disorientation, anger, manic or hypomanic episodes, restlessness, paresthesia, headache, slurred speech, dysarthria, stupor, tremor, dystonia, vivid dreams, extrapyramidal reactions, mild paradoxical excitation

😦🤤😂 CV: bradycardia, tachycardia, hypertension, hypotension, palpitations, cardiovascular collapse

😦🤤😂 EENT: blurred vision, diplopia, nystagmus, nasal congestion

😦🤤😂 GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, gastric disorders, difficulty swallowing, increased salivation

😦🤤😂 GU: urinary retention or incontinence, menstrual irregularities, gynecomastia, libido changes

😦🤤😂 Hematologic: blood dyscrasias including eosinophilia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, and thrombocytopenia

😦🤤😂 Hepatic: hepatic dysfunction

😦🤤😂 Musculoskeletal: muscle rigidity, muscular disturbances

😦🤤😂 Respiratory: respiratory depression

😦🤤😂 Skin: dermatitis, rash, pruritus, urticaria, diaphoresis

😦🤤😂 Other: weight gain or loss, decreased appetite, edema, hiccups, fever, physical or psychological drug dependence or tolerance

Interactions

😦🤤😂 Drug-drug.Antidepressants, antihistamines, barbiturates, opioids: additive CNS depression

😦🤤😂 Cimetidine, disulfiram, fluoxetine, hormonal contraceptives, isoniazid, ketoconazole, metoprolol, propoxyphene, propranolol, valproic acid: decreased metabolism and enhanced action of diazepam

😦🤤😂 Digoxin: increased digoxin blood level, possible toxicity

😦🤤😂 Levodopa: decreased levodopa efficacy

😦🤤😂 Rifampin: increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of diazepam

😦🤤😂 Theophylline: decreased sedative effect of diazepam

😦🤤😂 Drug-diagnostic tests.Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase: increased levels

😦🤤😂 Neutrophils, platelets: decreased counts

😦🤤😂 Drug-herbs.Chamomile, hops, kava, skullcap, valerian: increased CNS depression

😦🤤😂 Drug-behaviors.Alcohol use: increased CNS depression

Patient monitoring

😦🤤😂 • Monitor vital signs and respiratory and neurologic status.

😦🤤😂 • Supervise ambulation, especially in elderly patients.

😦🤤😂 • Monitor CBC and kidney and liver function test results.

😦🤤😂 Avoid sudden drug withdrawal. Taper dosage gradually to termination of therapy.

Patient teaching

😦🤤😂 • Inform patient he may take drug with or without food; recommend taking it with food if it causes stomach upset.

😦🤤😂 • Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.

😦🤤😂 Tell patient to notify prescriber immediately if easy bruising or bleeding occurs.

😦🤤😂 • Instruct patient to move slowly when sitting up or standing, to avoid dizziness from blood pressure decrease. Advise him to dangle legs briefly before getting out of bed.

😦🤤😂 Advise patient not to stop taking drug abruptly.

😦🤤😂 • Advise patient to avoid alcohol and other depressants such as sedatives while taking drug.

😦🤤😂 • Tell female patient not to take drug if she is pregnant or plans to breastfeed.

😦🤤😂 • As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

di·az·e·pam

(dī-az'ĕ-pam),
A benzodiazepine skeletal muscle relaxant, sedative, and antianxiety agent; also used in parenteral treatment of status epilepticus.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

diazepam

(dī-ăz′ə-păm′)
n.
A benzodiazepine drug, C16H13ClN2O, used to treat anxiety and alcohol withdrawal and as a sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
A benzodiazepine derivative intended to reduce stress and anxiety
Side effects Drowsiness, fatigue, muscle weakness, and ataxia
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

diazepam

Valium® Pharmacology A class V benzodiazepine muscle relaxant, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sometimes for panic disorders Adverse effects Physical, psychological dependence. See Benzodiazepine, Little Yellow Pill.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

di·az·e·pam

(dī-az'ĕ-pam)
A benzodiazepine skeletal muscle relaxant, sedative, and antianxiety agent; also used in parenteral treatment of status epilepticus.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

diazepam

A sedative and tranquillizing BENZODIAZEPINE drug. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Diazemuls, Diazepam Rectubes, Stesolid and Valclair.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

Diazepam

One of the most commonly used sedative-hypnotic medications.
Mentioned in: Sedation
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive?
'I want to add that Diazepam that is produced here is a controlled drug and if a drug is controlled, it means that it affects the central nervous system.
Diazepam provides muscle relaxation and act as sedatives, while xylazine also provide analgesia.
Significant variation noted in Clonidine and Diazepam groups in systolic blood pressure before and 90 minutes after premedication.
our results indicate that diazepam is able to positively change the functions of the pelvic floor muscle often highlighted" in women with vestibulodynia, reported Filippo Murina, MD, of the University of Milan and his coauthors.
We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a history of long-term BZD use disorder, who was successfully detoxified after receiving a loading dose of diazepam without the subsequent administration of benzodiazepines.
Electrochemical determination of diazepam is based on reduction of 4,5-azomethine group.
NRL-1 (intranasal diazepam) is a proprietary formulation of diazepam, delivered via a nasal formulation in a spray, being developed for the management of pediatric and adult patients who require intermittent use of diazepam to control bouts of acute repetitive seizure activity, also known as cluster seizures,.
For conveying the cannabis Judge Keith Thomas sentenced Jones to eight months in prison, for the diazepam to four months, and for the temazepam to four months, all to run concurrently, making eight months.
Curcumin (CUR), Bradford reagent, trichloroacetic acid, and o-phthalaldehyde were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals GmbH (Germany), and diazepam (DZP) (10mg/2mL) was purchased from Terapia Ranbaxy, Cluj-Napoca.
Abstract: The sedative effects of diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine after intranasal administration were evaluated in 72 (36 male and 36 female) juvenile healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus), weighing 50-61 kg and aged 4-5 months.
Addict Kerr, 37, thought they were diazepam, sold as Valium and also known as "blues".